Sauce Glossary

Bouquet garni
A small bundle of herbs tied with string. It is used to flavor stocks, braises, and other preparations. Usually contains bay leaf, parsley, thyme, and possibly other aromatics.

Brown stock
An amber liquid produced by simmering browned bones and meat (usually veal or beef) with vegetables and aromatics (including caramelized mire poix).

Conveyor oven
This style of oven permits the user to add “grill marks” and or brown the exterior of proteins; this does not remove moisture (active water) near as well as a true oven sear.

Deglaze/Deglacer
To use a liquid, such as wine, water, or stock, to dissolve food particles and/or caramelized drippings left in a pan after roasting or sautéing.

Emulsion
A sauce formed when one substance is suspended in another. For example, in hollandaise sauce, melted butter is suspended in partially cooked egg yolks. Emulsions are particularly fragile because they are not a true mixture. If not handled properly they can separate or break.

Espagnole sauce (Fr.)
“Spanish sauce.” Brown sauce made with brown stock, caramelized mire poix and tomato puree, and seasonings.

Fond (Fr.)
Stock or foundation.

Glace (Fr.)
Stock or poaching liquid that has been reduced (usually by about 90 percent) to the consistency of syrup when hot and a jelly-like texture when cold. It will coat the back of a wooden spoon.

Glace (Fr.)
Glazed or iced.

Grand sauce
One of several basic sauces that are used in the preparation of many other small sauces. The grand sauces are demi glace, veloute, béchamel, hollandaise, and tomato (also called Mother Sauce).

Jus (Fr.)
Juice. Jus de viande is meat gravy. Meat served with its own juice or jus lie’.

Jus lié (Fr.)
Meat juice thickened lightly with arrowroot or cornstarch.

Marinate
The process of allowing food to sit in a seasoned liquid. It is sometimes done to tenderize a tough cut of meat, but most often is done to add flavor. Foods that are marinating need to be turned frequently to ensure an even distribution of flavors.

Mire poix
A combination of chopped aromatic vegetables—usually two parts onion, one part carrot, and one part celery—used to flavor stocks, soups, braises, and stews.

Monte’ au beurre (Fr.)
“To lift with butter.” A technique used to enrich sauces, thicken them slightly, and also give them a glossy appearance by whisking in whole butter.

Napper/Nappe (Fr.)
To coat with sauce; thickened.

Oven seared
High temperature browning; completed in large convection ovens on stainless steel sheet pans. This adds natural, real caramelized notes to our braised (sous vide) entrées, while removing moisture (active water) and fats before our braising process begins.
**See conveyor oven.**

Reduce
To cook a liquid, such as stocks or broths, until the volume reduces due to evaporation. This process thickens the liquid and intensifies the flavors.

Reduction
The product that results when a liquid is reduced.

Remouillage (Fr.)
“Re-wetting.” A stock made from bones that have already been used to make stock; it is much weaker than a first-drawn stock and is often used in soups. Bonewerks only prepares sauces with first-drawn stocks.

Roux
Equal parts flour and butter cooked to varying degrees; the most traditional liaison for sauces.

Simmer
To bring a liquid to a temperature just below a boil (204°F). The surface of a simmering liquid should barely move. Most recipes referring to boiled foods really mean simmered foods.

Skim
To remove impurities from the surface of the liquid, such as stock or soup, during cooking.

Small sauce
A sauce that is a derivation of any of the grand sauces.

Steam-jacketed kettle
A kettle with double-layered walls, between which steam circulates, providing even heat for cooking stocks, soups, and sauces. These kettles may be insulated, spigoted, and/or tilting (the latter are also called trunion kettles).

Stock
A flavorful liquid prepared by simmering meat, poultry, seafood, and/or a vegetable in water with aromatics until their flavor is extracted. It is used as a base for soups, sauces, and other preparations.

White mire poix
Mire poix that does not include carrots, typically using leeks instead, and may include chopped mushrooms or mushroom trimmings. It is used for pale or white sauces and stocks.